Home > Environmental, Nature > Awareness – Drinking Water

Awareness – Drinking Water

Sources of Drinking Water

Ground water
Surface water


Fresh Water


Source of water

Ground water
– Water that fills the open spaces, or pore space, within the subsurface.

– Ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI) is any water beneath the surface of the ground with:

1)  significant occurrence of insects or other macro organisms,

2)  significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH that closely correlate to climatologically or surface water conditions. (40 CFR 141.2)

Surface water

– Open body of water, such as a river, stream, lake, or estuary.


Source of fresh water




Fresh Water Lake




Hydrological cycle – FINITE amount of water in Earth

What are the source of contaminant to Water?

Source water
– Ground water infiltration-from contaminated ground water
– Runoff-eg upstream waste contaminants

Ground water
– Injection of contaminants
– Surface water infiltration
– Naturally occurring substances


What Health Effects Can Contaminated Source Water Cause?

Acute health effects

– Pathogen

– Nitrate

– Chemicals

Chronic health effects
– chemicals above MCL (maximum contaminant level)


Contaminants that cause Acute Health Effect


-Virus, eg Enterovirus (fecal origin); Norwalk Virus (stomach flu): The World Health Organization counts waterborne viruses as second only to malaria in lost time and dollars in the global economy.

– Bacteria, eg E.Coli (recent case in Germany, caused by Brussels Sprout, many died)

– Protozoa (parasite)

– Nitrate-blue baby syndrome->10ppm, causing health issue for below 6 mths old baby – reduction of Oxygen (O2) in blood.


The contaminants that cause the Chronic Health Effect

– Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOC), eg Benzene, Toluene
– Inorganic Chemicals (IOCs), eg Lead
– Synthetics Organic Chemicals (SOCs), eg Pesticides

Source of contaminants

– Industrial activities
– Animal feeding operations
– Agriculture
– Landfills
– Urban uses

Save the Environment – Save the Earth – Save Gaia.


Link: Awareness – To Protect Our Planet I (Global Warming)

Link: Awareness – To Protect Our Planet II (Global Warming)

Link: Awareness – 起云剂 vs. 塑化剂


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